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Construction of Zelenograd

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In 1958 the mingled forests of north-eastern Moscow region witnessed the construction of Zelenograd, the first satellite city of Moscow.March, 3, 1958 is considered to be Zelenograd’s birthday – on this day the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted resolution 248 to construct a new city with the population of 65 thousand people in the suburban zone of Moscow near Kryukovo station of the Oktyabrskaya railway.

Originally Zelenograd was thought to become a satellite city of Moscow. By that time the concept of a satellite city had already entered the theory of architecture. Many countries tried to solve city resettlement problem creating dormitory areas around them.
But if we go back to history, the idea of ​​a garden city of Moscow was originating during the years of the first five-year plan. "There will be a garden city," Mayakovsky wrote, though he didn't mean Moscow region. This unimplemented project is embodied in the name Zelenogradskaya of one of Moscow region stations and the idea itself was realized in our city.

The city area was chosen to be the one between 37th and 41st km of the Leningrad highway, from the highway to the Oktyabrskaya railway.

2230 ha was rendered for construction. The population was assessed to be 65 thousand people with possible growth due to natural increase up to 80 thousand people.

The next point determined the building type which was:

"...a) to carry out construction of 4-storey houses with land applying open-plan technique, providing the best light and ventilation conditions of residential buildings, the use of natural terrain and existing vegetation;

b) to design apartments in living houses accommodating one family at the rate of 9 square meters of living space per person".

Igor Yevgenyevich Rozhin was appointed the Head of the architects’ group. His associates were: B. P. Tobilevich, E. Y. Bicson, D. E. Lurye, I. G. Zemlyachkovsky, M. P. Korshev, G. A. Burenko, L. P. Prokofiev, Y. G. Tresvetskaya representing the development team of workshop 14 of the Mospoyekt-1 department.

The architects’ dream was to preserve natural terrain, sloping to the river Skhodnya, detached groups of coniferous trees, ponds, uncropped fields adjacent to woodlands.
According to the First General Plan the area of ​​the city was to be divided into zones to allocate industrial companies, public utilities, living houses, shops, schools, etc.

Early in the spring of 1959, speaking before the House of Komsomol pupils of the Bauman district of Moscow , I. Y. Rozhin shared the plans with the architects:

-Main arrival station of the new city will be built in 2-3 years' time on the place of Malino station and several country houses. There is a Rzhavki village near the Leningrad highway, so today there is a country road winding in the lowlands among the pines. In several years’ time there will be an entry to the city represented by a large highway to hold a bridge over the Leningrad highway. The territory of the future city is to comprise meadows and arable land, beautiful forests with birch and pine trees. The whole territory is crossed by a small stream, over which you can jump easily - this is the source of the Skhodnya river. We're going to dam up the Skhodnya river to acquire a pond with the size of about 200 meters in width and 1 kilometer in length. This pond is going to allow you not only to swim, but also to take up rowing. The new city is surrounded by a wall of large forests; there are a lot of mushrooms, running hares and squirrels there. We want to preserve the existing green area as much as possible. The city is to be divided into districts; there will be a garden in each of them. In addition the residents will enjoy the orchards ...

There was much excitement about the first satellite city. It was much thought about, dreamt about as if it was a real wonder. The House of Komsomol pupils of the Bauman district gave the pupils of six schools the topic for expeditionary task connected with the start of construction of the new city which was to make record of the construction. Now the notebooks with these records are kept in the State Zelenograd museum.

In 1960 housing construction began in the 1st microdistrict. December 25-27, 1961 the first houses were approved by the Commission. The construction of the new city was executed orderly if we speak about technological and architectural aspects. First of all engineering services, heat pipelines, sewerage system and roads were constructed. Then residential building construction started. First residential houses were planned to undergo submission in early 1960.

Until 1963 Matushkino villagers lived their usual lives watching the city growing and as early as in 1963 the residents were offered to move into the houses of the rebuilt microdistricts.

The future city was to allocate various enterprises being moved out from Moscow. These are: engineering, electrical engineering, polygraphic, sewing and haberdashery factories; watch assembling and household appliances plants, soft toy plants. This is the origin of the names of the first industrial buildings – “school of machinists” and “school of metalworkers”.

The construction was fully underway, but none of the Moscow enterprises was really up to moving there. The future of the new city became unclear. The situation changed owing to the First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR N. S. Khrushchev. The construction of microelectronic industry enterprises started.

Naturally that resulted in the reconsideration of the General Plan and in 1962 I. Y. Rozhin’s work team modified the General Plan of 1959. A new plan covered city’s development up to the year of 1968.

January 16, 1963 under the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR the residential area located near Kryukovo station of the Oktyabrskaya railway changed to the city of Zelenograd.

During 1962-1963 the development team of the Mosproyekt-2 public facilities design department worked out a new General Plan of the city's development with the population of 80 thousand people. According to the Plan new districts as well as the Central Park and public centre were to be developed and new city highways to be built. While constructing it was planned to apply 5-9-12-16-storey buildings. March 19, 1964 the Executive Committee of the Moscow City Council approved the General Plan of the city's development.

A contest was announced to determine the best construction project for microelectronic industry. The project offered by the Pokrovsky studio from Mosproyekt-2 was acknowledged as the best one. Then his project on the construction of the city’s centre also proved to be a success (with a high-rise hotel and the Flute building).

In 1964 Igor Alexandrovich Pokrovsky became the Head of the architects’ group from the Mosproyekt-2 studio-3. The city’s development took a slightly different course was; now it was decorated with architectural ensembles. This is how Zelenograd acquired its own unique look.

The very first stone was laid in the foundation of a power substation. The municipal boiler house was the first building of the future city. Its first line was put into operation in 1959. By that time the buildings of the Zelenogradstroy department and schools of machinists and metalworkers had been completed. There was a hostel, canteen, medical centre, and a cinema hall in the Zelenogradstroy building. Every year on October 24 its former inhabitants organize a house-warming party for the first builders of Zelenograd.

New roads were open; the questions concerning water pipe and sewerage systems had been settled.

Since 1962 there emerged first infrastructure facilities including the first shop, the Beryozka canteen, polyclinic ¹ 152, school ¹ 842, kindergarten in house 137.

With the construction of residence houses completed, landscaping work was initiated: tree alleys and shrubs were planted with lawns and flower beds arranged. The forest and stand-alone trees were not cut down as the aim was to preserve nature as much as possible.

Architect Edison Iskanderovich Dashkov directed Zelenograd landscaping works from the beginning. His signature is already on the drawing of planting greenery in the 1st microdistrict (June 4, 1960). He designed the boulevard on Central Avenue, under his leadership chestnut, linden, larch, elm alleys appeared, silvery willows and other plants were planted in our city.
During the construction there were used such modern techniques of urban planning as the division of territory into districts and the allocation of zones to accommodate industry.

The main idea of the General Plan of Zelenograd was to create more favorable living conditions for the entire population of the city to be as close to nature as possible. Each district provided all the necessary public facilities. These are schools, kindergartens, sports facilities, as well as shops, cafes, pharmacies, etc. The houses of Zelenograd citizens were equipped with electric ovens. This was the first experiment in a new city.

Being built of standard houses the city nevertheless has its own unique look.

The work of Zelenograd architects was marked high. According to the Decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the Council of Ministers the following architects for Zelenograd architectural complexes were awarded the USSR State Prize for the year of 1975: I. A. Pokrovsky, A. B. Boldov, A. V. Klimochkin, D. A. Lisichkin, F. A. Novikov, G. Y. Saevich, Y. A. Sverdlovsky, engineers S. T. Dementiev, B. M. Zarkhi, Y. I. Ionov, B. M. Kirillov, Y. I. Kelarev.

The Zelenogradstroy manufacturing construction and assembly association was the leading construction company to implement the ideas of architects. It was founded in 1960 and acquired its present name in 1981.
The first samples of the new series of houses were built here first, and only then, "amended and supplemented by" the practice of construction and operation in Zelenograd, appeared in other districts of Moscow to further spread across the country. Zelenograd was the All-Union experimental platform.

Our city was the first to apply the method of team contract in the brigade of N. A. Zlobin. With the transition to the new method the construction time was cut in half, while the growth in labor productivity was 30-40%. At the same time there was an increase in wages. The method of team contract does not only affect the economy but also cultivates prudence and creativity of man.

The progressive method of labor and production management proposed by N. A. Zlobin was applied on the construction sites all over the country. Labor achievements of Zelenograd builders were highly praised. N. A. Zlobin was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor twice, was elected a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Some of the brigade members were awarded Orders of Lenin, Red Banner of Labor, more than 30 people received the "Badges of Honor" and medals.

The city is distinguished by green space, 800 hectares of which is represented by Forest Park. Zelenograd aesthetic forestry office was established in 1968 to care for forests and their conservation being used by the citizens for rest and leisure.
Carpentry of the Aesthetic Forestry office together with the wood-carvers produced interesting compositions of children playgrounds, park furniture that adorn forest glades and the corners of urban forest and park areas.

Zelenograd has always been distinguished by lawns and flower beds, which is the main objects of the Aesthetic Forestry office. The whole system of greenery was designed as a continuous green chain surrounding living areas to create green inner city recreation places and to appeal to the eyes of a pedestrian by its well-kept territory and multi-colour flower beds.


The following materials of the following authors were used:

1. “In the beginning was the word of: government, 1st Secretary, architects” by Tatiana Vladimirovna VIZBUL, Director of the State Zelenograd Museum of Local History and Lore
2. Introductory article to the album "Zelenograd. Starting the construction" issued by the State Zelenograd Museum of Local History and Lore in 2003 to commemorate the 45th anniversary of Zelenograd by Vizbul T. V., Director of the State Zelenograd Museum of Local History and Lore
3. Igor Yevgenyevich ROZHIN, author of the first architectural project of Zelenograd, Academician of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences
4. Ilya Ivanovich TSILIKIN, Head of the Aesthetic Forestry office of Zelenograd during 1961 -1965.
5. "First Zelenograd citizens settled under New Year's rain" by Ivan Ivanovich Ges, first builder of Zelenograd, shovel operator who was awarded the medal "For Labour Merit" and the badge of "The Best Worker of Glavmospromstroy" and deserved the title of “The Best Shovel Operator of Moscow”.

6. "He loved to have a lot of sky overhead". A sketch book about the main architect of Zelenograd Igor Alexandrovich Pokrovsky
7. "The flavor of time": memoirs of:
V. N. Diaghilev, NIIME worker (since February 1963), Doctor of Technical Sciences;
S. A. Garyainov, Head of the Advanced Research Centre, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
A. I. Korobov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
V. I. Gavrilov, mechanical technician, best worker of the Ministry of Electronic Industry of the USSR;
N. M. Lukanov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, developer of VLSI and ULSI;
A. A. Kokin, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, NIIME worker during 1965-1987;
V. I. Markov, scientific secretary of the Submicron scientific development and production centre;
V. I. Nikolayev, first Director of the Research Centre carpool;
A. V. Pivovarov, Director of the Research Centre during 1970-1976;
Y. Y. Pafomov, 1st Chief of the 1st galvanizing factory in town of the Elion plant;
V. S. Sergeyev, 1st Director of theResearch Institute of Precision Engineering (RIPE), Hero of Socialist Labor;
Y. S. Gornev, Deputy General Director of JSC NIIME and" Micron;

V. I. Martynov; Head of the laboratory;
Y. P. Savchinsky, the Micron plant;
I. N. Vozhenin, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
8. "Frozen Sounds of Requiem" by Elena Alexeyevna Derevianko-Sherstyuk, member of the Artists Union of Russia

9. "There was slush all around. Radio communication with Moscow" by Mikhail Nikiforovich Bodyaev, first builder of Zelenograd, telephone exchange builder
10. "The guys were go-ahead, though sometimes fouled up" by Leonid Dementyevich Gerashchenko, Chief Engineer of the Directorate of the Enterprises under construction, the Chairman of the Working Committee for Acceptance of Zelenograd enterprises
11. "The era was heroic, the city was remarkable" by Viktor Nikolayevich Kolokolchikov, Deputy Chief Engineer (1963-1987) of the Directorate of the uc enterprises of precision mechanics of the Ministry of Electronic Industry


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